Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar
Zafferana November 2002
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          The 1991–1993 eruption saw the town of Zafferana threatened by a lava flow, but successful diversion efforts saved the town with the loss of only one building a few hundred  metres from the town's margin.
Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar Photo: Rolf Cosar
Mount    Etna,    towering    above    Catania,    Sicily's    second    largest    city,    has    one    of    the world's   longest   documented   records   of   historical   volcanism,   dating   back   to   1500   BCE. Historical    lava    flows    of    basaltic    composition    cover    much    of    the    surface    of    this massive   volcano,   whose   edifice   is   the   highest   and   most   voluminous   in   Italy.   The Mongibello    stratovolcano,    truncated    by    several    small    calderas,    was    constructed during   the   late   Pleistocene   and   Holocene   over   an   older   shield   volcano.   The   most prominent    morphological    feature    of    Etna    is    the    Valle    del    Bove,    a    5    x    10    km horseshoe-shaped   caldera   open   to   the   east.   Two   styles   of   eruptive   activity   typically occur,   sometimes   simultaneously.   Persistent   explosive   eruptions,   sometimes   with minor   lava   emissions,   take   place   from   one   or   more   summit   craters.   Flank   vents,   typically   with   higher   effusion   rates,   are   less   frequently   active   and   originate from   fissures   that   open   progressively   downward   from   near   the   summit   (usually   accompanied   by   Strombolian   eruptions   at   the   upper   end).   Cinder   cones   are commonly   constructed   over   the   vents   of   lower-flank   lava   flows.   Lava   flows   extend   to   the   foot   of   the   volcano   on   all   sides   and   have   reached   the   sea   over   a broad area on the SE flank (Global Volcanism Program ). I n   2002–2003,   a   large   eruption   threw   up   a   huge   column   of   ash   that   could   easily   be   seen   from   space   and   fell   as   far   away   as   Libya,   600   km   south   across   the Mediterrian   Sea.   Seismic   activity   in   this   eruption   caused   the   eastern   flanks   of   the   volcano   to   slip   by   up   to   two   metres,   and   many   houses   on   the   flanks   of   the volcano   experienced   structural   damage.   The   eruption   also   completely   destroyed   the   tourist   station   Piano   de   Lago,   on   the   northeastern   flank   of   the   volcano, and part of the tourist station "Etna Sud" around the Rifugio Sapienza on the south flank.
Etna Location: 37.734° N, 15.004° E Elevation: 3.350 m
Etna eruption November 2002
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NASA